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    Frederick Johnson collection of negatives, 1915-1931 (bulk 1925-1931)
     
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    Creator: 
    Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994
    Title: 
    Frederick Johnson collection of negatives, 1915-1931 (bulk 1925-1931)
    Phy. Description: 
    451 negatives ; black and white
    Bio / His Notes: 
    Born in 1904 in Everett, Massachusetts, Frederick Johnson at an early age displayed an interest in indigenous cultures and an aptitude for indigenous languages. He studied anthropology at Tufts, the University of Massachusetts, and at the University of Pennsylvania, and eventually accompanied anthropologist and mentor Frank G. Speck on several trips throughout the Northeastern United States. Early in his career, Johnson worked with the Algonquin people and from 1917 to 1931 among the Innu, Mi'kmaq, Anishinaabe, and Mistassini Cree communities in Canada. Individuals from these communities noted that Johnson's primarily focus was to listen to elders and their stories. From 1936 to 1967, Johnson was the curator of Harvard's Peabody Museum and subsequently became the Museum's director, a post that he held until his retirement in 1969. Johnson passed away in 1994 in Lowell, Massachusetts.
    Summary: 
    The collection consists of original negatives made from 1915 to 1931 by Johnson primary among the Mi'kmaq, Innu, Algonquin, Potawatomi, Montagnais, Abenaki, Anishinaabe, and Mistassini Cree peoples of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Quebec, Canada. The bulk were made among the Mi'kmaq, Innu, and Algonquin peoples in 1925 and from 1927 to 1931. In general, the majority of the Canada materials are informal, outdoor portraits of individuals and groups but they also depict dwellings, the construction of wigwams and birchbark canoes, carving and wood working processes, ceremonials, churches, the process of catching and smoking salmon, and the landscape. In addition there are negatives made in Maine in 1915 and Delaware from 1924 to 1926 of, respectively, the Penobscot and Nanticoke, Rappahannock, and Mohegan peoples. Again, these consist primarily of outdoor, informal portraits of individuals and groups of people.
    Organization: 
    Organized by negative number (N13291-N13319, N14402-N14461, N14726-N14832, N15000-N15057, N19140-N19159, N19796-N19932, N20268-N20307)
    Provenance: 
    Historically, the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation managed all photographic materials separately. This collection description represents current management practices of organizing and contextualizing related archival materials.
    Cite as: 
    Frederick Johnson collection of negatives, 1915-1931, National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution (negative number).
    Restrictions: 
    Researchers must contact the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
    Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
    Culture: 
    Mi'kmaq (Micmac)
    Algonquin [Golden Lake/Pikwàkanagàn First Nation]
    Algonquin [Lac Barriere (Barriere Lake)]
    Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]
    Anishinaabe [Parry Island, Ontario]
    Potawatomi [Parry Island, Ontario]
    Innu [Uashat-Maliotenam (Seven Islands)]
    Innu [Mashteuiatsh (Pointe-Bleue, Quebec)]
    Innu [Kiskissink]
    Innu [Pessamit (Betsiamites/Bersimis)]
    Mistassini Cree
    Nanticoke
    Rappahannock
    Mohegan
    Penobscot
    Subject-Topical: 
    Indians of North America -- Québec (Province) -- Photographs
    Indians of North America -- Nova Scotia -- Photographs
    Indians of North America -- Newfoundland and Labrador -- Photographs
    Indians of North America -- Delaware -- Photographs
    Indians of North America -- Maine -- Photographs
    Form / Genre: 
    Negatives
    Repository Loc: 
    National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Cultural Resources Center, 4220 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746. (tel: 301-238-1400, fax: 301-238-3038, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
    Local Number: 
    NMAI.AC.001.038
    Co-Creator: 
    Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
    Item Information
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