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    Frank Gouldsmith Speck Photograph Collection, 1885-1934.
     
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    Creator: 
    Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950
    Title: 
    Frank Gouldsmith Speck Photograph Collection, 1885-1934.
    Phy. Description: 
    1428 Negatives
    40 b&w Photographic prints
    Additional forms: 
    184 negatives and 1 print have been digitized as of July 2003.
    Bio / His Notes: 
    Frank Speck made several field trips for George Gustav Heye and the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation between the 1924 and 1932 to the Montagnais and Naskapi in Canada, the Pamunkey and Chickahominy in Virginia, the Eskimo, Naskapi, Mistassini, and Montagnais tribes in Labrador and Greenland. The majority of Speck’s fieldwork, however, was done on his own and partially financed by the sale of items collected in the field. Speck also conducted fieldwork in Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, North Carolina, and parts of the American Midwest. Frank Gouldsmith Speck was born on November 8, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied under the prominent linguist John Dyneley Prince and anthropologist Franz Boas at Columbia University, receiving his BA in 1904 and MA in 1905. He received his Ph.D. in 1908 from the University of Pennsylvania. His doctoral dissertation on the ethnography of the Yuchi became a basis for an article which later appeared in the Handbook of American Indians. That same year Speck became an assistant in the University of Pennsylvania Museum and an instructor in anthropology at the University. He was made assistant professor in 1911, and professor and chairperson of the department in 1925, a position which he held until his death in 1950. Speck was the founder of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society, and was vice-president of the American Anthropological Association from 1945-46. Speck’s research concentration was on the Algonkian speaking peoples. Speck studied every aspect of a culture: language, ethnobiology, technology, decorative art, myths, religion, ceremonialism, social organization, and music. Collecting material culture was also an integral part of Speck’s fieldwork. His collections can be found in museums around the world, one of which is the National Museum of the American Indian. He is the author of numerous books and articles. Frank G. Speck died February 6, 1950. (A. Irving Hallowell, American Anthropologist, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1951)
    Scope and Content: 
    The majority of photographs are of individuals from the various tribes which Speck visited from ca. 1914 to 1934. There are also a variety of scenic shots of the areas which he visited. His collection contains photographs of the Abnaki, Accomac, Algonkin, Aracua, Catawba, Cherokee, Chickahominy, Chippewa, Delaware, Eskimo (Naskapi), Huron, Innu (Naskapi), Iroquois, Mahican, Malecite, Mashpee, Mattaponi, Mi’kmaq, Mistassini, Mohegan, Montagnais, Nanticoke, Narragansett, Nehantic, Niantic, Pamunkey, Potomac, Penobscot, Pequot, Powhatan, Rappahannock, Six Nations, Tutelo, Wampanoag, and Wawenock.
    Organization: 
    Collection arranged by item number.
    Provenance: 
    Speck’s photographs were taken during his field trips, several of which were done under contract to George Gustav Heye and the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation; however, it is not known at this time under what conditions Heye acquired the photographs.
    General Note: 
    Presumably all of the photographs were taken by Frank Speck, except one dated 1885 which was taken by Lavernois.
    Restrictions: 
    Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
    Culture: 
    Accomac
    Algonquin Indians
    Aracua
    Catawba Indians
    Cherokee Indians
    Chickahominy
    Ojibwa Indians
    Delaware Indians
    Eskimo (Naskapi)
    Huron
    Innu (Naskapi)
    Iroquois Indians
    Mahican Indians
    Malecite Indians
    Mashpee Indians
    Mattaponi
    Micmac Indians
    Mistassin Indians
    Mohegan Indians
    Montagnais Indians
    Nanticoke Indians
    Narragansett Indians
    Nehantic
    Niantic
    Pamunkey Indians
    Potomac Indians
    Penobscot Indians
    Pequot Indians
    Powhatan Indians
    Rappahannock Indians
    Six Nations
    Tutelo Indians
    Wampanoag Indians
    Wawenock Indians
    Subject-Topical: 
    Indians of North America -- Alaska
    Indians of North America -- Canada
    Indians of North America -- Delaware
    Indians of North America -- Maine
    Indians of North America -- Maryland
    Indians of North America -- Massachusetts
    Indians of North America -- Midwest
    Indians of North America -- Northeast
    Indians of North America -- North Carolina
    Indians of North America -- Southern States
    Indians of North America -- Virginia
    Subject - Geographical: 
    Alaska
    Canada
    Delaware
    Maine
    Maryland
    Massachusetts
    North Carolina
    Virginia
    Form / Genre: 
    Negatives
    Photographic prints
    Repository Loc: 
    National Museum of the American Indian Archives, MRC-541, Cultural Resources Center, 4220 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746. (tel: 301/238-6624, fax: 301/238-3038).
    Local Number: 
    NMAI.AC.001.032
    Co-Creator: 
    Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
    Item Information
    Repository 
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