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  • Kiowa Indians
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  • Ledger drawings
    Pochoir prints of ledger drawings by the Kiowa Five, 1929.
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    Pochoir prints of ledger drawings by the Kiowa Five, 1929.
    Contained in: 
    Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
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    Pochoir prints of ledger drawings by the Kiowa Five, 1929.
    Phy. Description: 
    24 paintings : watercolor applied by pochoir ; 89 x 72 cm.
    Bio / His Notes: 
    The Kiowa Five were a group of painters who earned national and international acclaim during the early twentieth century. The group actually consisted of six individuals, Spencer Asah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke, Lois Smoky, and James Auchiah. A number of the artists attended St. Patrick’s Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma, where they received art instruction from Sister Olivia Taylor. Susan Peters, a government field matron, also took an interest in the young artists' work. She arranged for an artist from Chickasha, Mrs. Willie Baze Lane, to provide art lessons. Eventually Ms. Peters persuaded Dr. Oscar Jacobson, head of the school of art at the University of Oklahoma, to provide additional training for the artists. In 1926, Asah, Hokeah, Tsatoke, and Mopope arrived at the University. The artists were not officially enrolled, but they received special instruction from Jacobson and Dr. Edith Mahier, another professor in the school of art. In January 1927, Lois Smokey, a young Kiowa woman, arrived to study with the other artists. In spring, the artists were compelled to return home to attend to agricultral pursuits. They returned in the fall, accompanied by James Auchiah, the sixth and final student. Shortly thereafter, Lois Smokey withdrew from the program and returned home. Dr. Oscar Jacobson arranged for the Kiowa artists’ paintings to be exhibited in 1928 at the First International Art Exposition in Prague, Czechoslovakia. In 1929, Kiowa Art, a portfolio of the artists' paintings was published in France. For additional information on these artists, see: Jeanne O. Snodgrass, American Indian Painters - A Biographical Directory, Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation, 1968. John Anson Warner, “Native American Painting in Oklahoma: Continuity and Change.” The Journal of Intercultural Studies, 23: 14-129, 1996.
    Stephen Mopope also known as Qued Koi (Painted Robe) was born on August 27, 1898 near Red Stone Baptist Church on the Kiowa Reservation. He attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died on February 3, 1974.
    Spencer Asah also known as Lallo (Little Boy) was born between 1905 and 1910 near Carnegie, Oklahoma. He attended various government Indian schools and St. Patrick's Mission School, Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died in 1954.
    James Auchiah was born in 1906 near Medicine Park, Oklahoma. He attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died on December 28, 1974.
    Jack Hokeah was born in 1902 in western Oklahoma. He attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died on December 14, 1969.
    Monroe Tsatoke also known as Tsa To Kee (Hunting Horse) was born September 29, 1904 at Saddle Mountain, Oklahoma. He attended Rainy Mountain Indian School near Carnegie, Oklahoma and Bacone College. He died on February 3, 1937.
    Lois Smokey also known as Bougetah (Of the Dawn) was born in 1907, near Anadarko, Oklahoma. She died on February 1, 1981.
    Includes twenty-four print illustrating dancers, costumed figures, and ceremonial events. Each sheet is numbered in the upper right corner, with numbers 1 through 30, complete except for 3, 5, 7, 22, 26, and 29. The prints are from a portfolio containing 30 plates and an accompanying text by Jacobson published by C. Szwedizicki, Nice, France. There related prints in the Acee Blue Eagle collection, including the original painting on which Plate 27 is based. The painters are the so-called Kiowa Five: Jack Hokeah, Spencer Asah, Bougetah (Lois) Smokey, Stephen Mopope, and Monroe Tsatoke. For this set of drawings, an electrostatic copy of the text as published in 1979 with an essay by Jamake Highwater and the Jacobson text in French with an added translation in English has been added (Oscar Brousse Jacobson, Kiowa Indian Art: Watercolor Paintings in Color by the Indians of Oklahoma) with an introductory essay by Jamake Highwater, Bell Editions, Santa Fe, ca. 1979). The whereabouts of the missing art and the original 1929 text and covers are not known.
    A note dated 1970, indicates that the color plates were hanging in the office of the Chairman of the Department of Anthropology, having previously been displayed in the office of the Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology. They were later removed from display and designated NAA MS 7536. No information is available regarding their acquisition.
    Cite as: 
    Manuscript 7536, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
    Local Notes: 
    Information for the collection level record was drawn from Oscar Brousse Jacobson, Kiowa Indian Art: Watercolor Paintings in Color by the Indians of Oklahoma (with an introductory essay by Jamake Highwater), Bell Editions, 1979.
    Kiowa Indians
    Indians of North America -- Great Plains
    Language and languages -- Documentation
    Form / Genre: 
    Ledger drawings
    Repository Loc: 
    National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Museum Support Center, Suitland, Maryland
    Local Number: 
    NAA MS 7536
    NAA INV 09064600-09066900
    Asah, Spencer, ca. 1905-1954. artist
    Auchiah, James, 1906-1974. artist
    Mopope, Stephen, 1898-1974. artist
    Hokeah, Jack, 1902-1969. artist
    Smokey, Lois, 1907-1981. artist
    Tsatoke, Monroe, 1904-1937. artist
    Jacobson, Oscar Brousse, 1882-1966. collector
    Item Information
    RepositoryCall No. 
    National Anthropological ArchivesNAA INV 9064600- 09066900Add Copy to MyList
    National Anthropological ArchivesNAA MS 7536Add Copy to MyList

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